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Hume's Epistemology in the Treatise
80,90 CHF *
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Frederick F. Schmitt offers a systematic interpretation of David Hume's epistemology, as it is presented in the indispensable A Treatise of Human Nature. Hume's text alternately manifests scepticism, empiricism, and naturalism in epistemology. Interpretations of his epistemology have tended to emphasise one of these apparently conflicting positions over the others. But Schmitt argues that the positions can be reconciled by tracing them to a single underlying epistemology of knowledge and probability quietly at work in the text, an epistemology according to which truth is the chief cognitive merit of a belief, and knowledge and probable belief are species of reliable belief. Hume adopts Locke's dichotomy between knowledge and probability and reassigns causal inference from its traditional place in knowledge to the domain of probability-his most significant departure from earlier accounts of cognition. This shift of causal inference to an associative and imaginative operation raises doubts about the merit of causal inference, suggesting the counterintuitive consequence that causal inference is wholly inferior to knowledge-producing demonstration. To defend his associationist psychology of causal inference from this suggestion, Hume must favourably compare causal inference with demonstration in a manner compatible with associationism. He does this by finding an epistemic status shared by demonstrative knowledge and causally inferred beliefs-the status of justified belief. On the interpretation developed here, he identifies knowledge with infallible belief and justified belief with reliable belief, i.e., belief produced by truth-conducive belief-forming operations. Since infallibility implies reliable belief, knowledge implies justified belief. He then argues that causally inferred beliefs are reliable, so share this status with knowledge. Indeed Hume assumes that causally inferred beliefs enjoy this status in his very argument for associationism. On the reliability interpretation, Hume's accounts of knowledge and justified belief are part of a broader veritistic epistemology making true belief the chief epistemic value and goal of science. The veritistic interpretation advanced here contrasts with interpretations on which the chief epistemic value of belief is its empirical adequacy, stability, or fulfilment of a natural function, as well as with the suggestion that the chief value of belief is its utility for common life. Veritistic interpretations are offered of the natural function of belief, the rules of causal inference, scepticism about body and matter, and the criteria of justification. As Schmitt shows, there is much attention to Hume's sources in Locke and to the complexities of his epistemic vocabulary.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 06.12.2019
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Hume's Epistemology in the Treatise
69,49 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Frederick F. Schmitt offers a systematic interpretation of David Hume's epistemology, as it is presented in the indispensable A Treatise of Human Nature. Hume's text alternately manifests scepticism, empiricism, and naturalism in epistemology. Interpretations of his epistemology have tended to emphasise one of these apparently conflicting positions over the others. But Schmitt argues that the positions can be reconciled by tracing them to a single underlying epistemology of knowledge and probability quietly at work in the text, an epistemology according to which truth is the chief cognitive merit of a belief, and knowledge and probable belief are species of reliable belief. Hume adopts Locke's dichotomy between knowledge and probability and reassigns causal inference from its traditional place in knowledge to the domain of probability-his most significant departure from earlier accounts of cognition. This shift of causal inference to an associative and imaginative operation raises doubts about the merit of causal inference, suggesting the counterintuitive consequence that causal inference is wholly inferior to knowledge-producing demonstration. To defend his associationist psychology of causal inference from this suggestion, Hume must favourably compare causal inference with demonstration in a manner compatible with associationism. He does this by finding an epistemic status shared by demonstrative knowledge and causally inferred beliefs-the status of justified belief. On the interpretation developed here, he identifies knowledge with infallible belief and justified belief with reliable belief, i.e., belief produced by truth-conducive belief-forming operations. Since infallibility implies reliable belief, knowledge implies justified belief. He then argues that causally inferred beliefs are reliable, so share this status with knowledge. Indeed Hume assumes that causally inferred beliefs enjoy this status in his very argument for associationism. On the reliability interpretation, Hume's accounts of knowledge and justified belief are part of a broader veritistic epistemology making true belief the chief epistemic value and goal of science. The veritistic interpretation advanced here contrasts with interpretations on which the chief epistemic value of belief is its empirical adequacy, stability, or fulfilment of a natural function, as well as with the suggestion that the chief value of belief is its utility for common life. Veritistic interpretations are offered of the natural function of belief, the rules of causal inference, scepticism about body and matter, and the criteria of justification. As Schmitt shows, there is much attention to Hume's sources in Locke and to the complexities of his epistemic vocabulary.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 06.12.2019
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Hill, R: Principles of Econometrics
89,90 CHF *
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Designed to arm finance professionals with an understanding of why econometrics is necessary, this book also provides them with a working knowledge of basic econometric tools. The fourth edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the current state of economic and financial markets. New discussions are presented on Kennel Density Fitting and the analysis of treatment effects. A new summary of probability and statistics has been added. In addition, numerous new end-of-chapter questions and problems have been integrated throughout the chapters. This will help finance professionals apply basic econometric tools to modeling, estimation, inference, and forecasting through real world problems.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 06.12.2019
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Integration of World Knowledge for Natural Lang...
125,90 CHF *
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This book concerns non-linguistic knowledge required to perform computational natural language understanding (NLU). The main objective of the book is to show that inference-based NLU has the potential for practical large scale applications. First, an introduction to research areas relevant for NLU is given. We review approaches to linguistic meaning, explore knowledge resources, describe semantic parsers, and compare two main forms of inference: deduction and abduction. In the main part of the book, we propose an integrative knowledge base combining lexical-semantic, ontological, and distributional knowledge. A particular attention is payed to ensuring its consistency. We then design a reasoning procedure able to make use of the large scale knowledge base. We experiment both with a deduction-based NLU system and with an abductive reasoner. For evaluation, we use three different NLU tasks: recognizing textual entailment, semantic role labeling, and interpretation of noun dependencies.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 06.12.2019
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Case-Based Approximate Reasoning
206,90 CHF *
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Case-based reasoning (CBR) has received a great deal of attention in recent years and has established itself as a core methodology in the field of artificial intelligence. The key idea of CBR is to tackle new problems by referring to similar problems that have already been solved in the past. More precisely, CBR proceeds from individual experiences in the form of cases. The generalization beyond these experiences typically relies on a kind of regularity assumption demanding that 'similar problems have similar solutions'. Making use of different frameworks of approximate reasoning and reasoning under uncertainty, notably probabilistic and fuzzy set-based techniques, this book develops formal models of the above inference principle, which is fundamental to CBR. The case-based approximate reasoning methods thus obtained especially emphasize the heuristic nature of case-based inference and aspects of uncertainty in CBR. This way, the book contributes to a solid foundation of CBR which is grounded on formal concepts and techniques from the aforementioned fields. Besides, it establishes interesting relationships between CBR and approximate reasoning, which not only cast new light on existing methods but also enhance the development of novel approaches and hybrid systems. This books is suitable for researchers and practioners in the fields of artifical intelligence, knowledge engineering and knowledge-based systems. TOC:From the contents Notation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Similarity and Case-Based Inference.- 4. Probabilistic Modeling of Case-Based Inference.- 5. Fuzzy Set-Based Modeling of Case-Based Inference I. 6.1 Gradual inference rules.- 7. Case-Based Decision Making.- 8. Conclusions and Outlook. A. Possibilistic Dominance in Qualitative Decisions.- References.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 06.12.2019
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Case-Based Approximate Reasoning
166,59 € *
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Case-based reasoning (CBR) has received a great deal of attention in recent years and has established itself as a core methodology in the field of artificial intelligence. The key idea of CBR is to tackle new problems by referring to similar problems that have already been solved in the past. More precisely, CBR proceeds from individual experiences in the form of cases. The generalization beyond these experiences typically relies on a kind of regularity assumption demanding that 'similar problems have similar solutions'. Making use of different frameworks of approximate reasoning and reasoning under uncertainty, notably probabilistic and fuzzy set-based techniques, this book develops formal models of the above inference principle, which is fundamental to CBR. The case-based approximate reasoning methods thus obtained especially emphasize the heuristic nature of case-based inference and aspects of uncertainty in CBR. This way, the book contributes to a solid foundation of CBR which is grounded on formal concepts and techniques from the aforementioned fields. Besides, it establishes interesting relationships between CBR and approximate reasoning, which not only cast new light on existing methods but also enhance the development of novel approaches and hybrid systems. This books is suitable for researchers and practioners in the fields of artifical intelligence, knowledge engineering and knowledge-based systems. TOC:From the contents Notation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Similarity and Case-Based Inference.- 4. Probabilistic Modeling of Case-Based Inference.- 5. Fuzzy Set-Based Modeling of Case-Based Inference I. 6.1 Gradual inference rules.- 7. Case-Based Decision Making.- 8. Conclusions and Outlook. A. Possibilistic Dominance in Qualitative Decisions.- References.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 06.12.2019
Zum Angebot
Integration of World Knowledge for Natural Lang...
107,09 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

This book concerns non-linguistic knowledge required to perform computational natural language understanding (NLU). The main objective of the book is to show that inference-based NLU has the potential for practical large scale applications. First, an introduction to research areas relevant for NLU is given. We review approaches to linguistic meaning, explore knowledge resources, describe semantic parsers, and compare two main forms of inference: deduction and abduction. In the main part of the book, we propose an integrative knowledge base combining lexical-semantic, ontological, and distributional knowledge. A particular attention is payed to ensuring its consistency. We then design a reasoning procedure able to make use of the large scale knowledge base. We experiment both with a deduction-based NLU system and with an abductive reasoner. For evaluation, we use three different NLU tasks: recognizing textual entailment, semantic role labeling, and interpretation of noun dependencies.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 06.12.2019
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Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence
77,99 € *
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This collection of 36 papers covers a range of topics on artificial intelligence, including logical inference, knowledge representation and natural language understanding.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 06.12.2019
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Linear Statistical Inference and its Applications
150,00 CHF *
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'C. R. Rao would be found in almost any statistician's list of fiveoutstanding workers in the world of Mathematical Statistics today.His book represents a comprehensive account of the main body ofresults that comprise modern statistical theory.' -W. G. Cochran '[C. R. Rao is] one of the pioneers who laid the foundations ofstatistics which grew from ad hoc origins into a firmly groundedmathematical science.' -B. Efrom Translated into six major languages of the world, C. R. Rao'sLinear Statistical Inference and Its Applications is one of theforemost works in statistical inference in the literature.Incorporating the important developments in the subject that havetaken place in the last three decades, this paperback reprint ofhis classic work on statistical inference remains highly applicableto statistical analysis. Presenting the theory and techniques ofstatistical inference in a logically integrated and practical form,it covers: * The algebra of vectors and matrices * Probability theory, tools, and techniques * Continuous probability models * The theory of least squares and the analysis of variance * Criteria and methods of estimation * Large sample theory and methods * The theory of statistical inference * Multivariate normal distribution Written for the student and professional with a basic knowledge ofstatistics, this practical paperback edition gives this industrystandard new life as a key resource for practicing statisticiansand statisticians-in-training.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 06.12.2019
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