Human reasoning is remarkably shallow- in fact, our thinking and justifications just scratch the surface of the true complexity of the issues we deal with. The ability to think may still be the greatest wonder in the world (and beyond), but the way that individuals think is less than ideal. In The Knowledge Illusion, the authors show that people are a little like bees and society like a bee hive: our intelligence resides not in individual brains but in the collective mind. To function, individuals rely not only on knowledge that is stored within our skulls but also on knowledge stored elsewhere, be it in our bodies, in the environment, and, especially, in other people. Put together, human thought is incredibly impressive, but at its deepest level, it never belongs to any individual alone. And yet the mind supports the most sublime, incredible phenomenon of all: consciousness. How can any of this be possible with a mind that is so imperfect? This is one of the key challenges they will confront. The Knowledge Illusion will not only tie together established scientific facts, but their arguments will be made sensible by a consideration of what the mind is for. Understanding why the mind is as it is, and what it is for, will show why we need to consider it as extending beyond our skulls; why we should think about ´´the mind´´ as far more than an extension of the brain but as an emergence from multiple brains interacting. Simply put, individuals know relatively little, but the human hive that emerges when people work together knows a lot. The Knowledge Illusion offers us improved ways of approaching our most complex problems. It should make us more humble, opening our minds to other people´s ideas and ways of thinking. It offers lessons about how to avoid things like financial meltdowns by recognizing the limits of our understanding. It can help improve our body politic and help us assess how much reliance should we have on experts vs. how much decision-making power should be given to individual voters. Appreciating that the mind is shared should also make us more realistic about history; instead of idolizing the great men and women of history, we should be idolizing the great societies that allowed great ideas and achievements to develop. Knowing that knowledge resides in systems of individuals also makes it harder to see catastrophe coming, because there may be no individual on the lookout, so understanding ourselves better allows us to create better safeguards. In short, there is real value in knowing that the mind is more than the brain.
The Knowledge Illusion:Why We Never Think Alone Steven Sloman/ Philip Fernbach
The Knowledge Illusion:The myth of individual thought and the power of collective wisdom Steven Sloman/ Philip Fernbach
Human reasoning is remarkably shallow - in fact our thinking and justifications just scratch the surface of the true complexity of the issues we deal with. The ability to think may still be the greatest wonder in the world (and beyond), but the way that individuals think is less than ideal. In The Knowledge Illusion, Sloman and Fernbach show that our intelligence resides not in individual brains but in the collective mind. To function, individuals rely not only on knowledge that is stored within our skulls but also on knowledge stored elsewhere, be it in our bodies, in the environment, or especially in other people. Put together, human thought is incredibly impressive, but at its deepest level it never belongs to any individual alone. And yet the mind supports the most sublime, incredible phenomenon of all: consciousness. How can any of this be possible with a mind that is so imperfect? This is one of the key challenges confronted in this book. The Knowledge Illusion ties together established scientific facts whilst also considering what the mind is for. Understanding why the mind is as it is and what it is for will show why we need to consider it as extending beyond our skulls; why we should think about ´the mind´ as far more than an extension of the brain, as an emergence from multiple brains interacting. Simply put, individuals know relatively little, but the human hive that emerges when people work together knows a lot. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Mike Chamberlain. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/macm/001071/bk_macm_001071_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
We all think we know more than we actually do. Humans have built hugely complex societies and technologies, but most of us don´t even know how a pen or a toilet works. How have we achieved so much despite understanding so little? Cognitive scientists Steven Sloman and Philip Fernbach argue that we survive and thrive despite our mental shortcomings because we live in a rich community of knowledge. The key to our intelligence lies in the people and things around us. We´re constantly drawing on information and expertise stored outside our heads: in our bodies, our environment, our possessions, and the community with which we interact - and usually we don´t even realize we´re doing it. The human mind is both brilliant and pathetic. We have mastered fire, created democratic institutions, stood on the moon, and sequenced our genome. And yet each of us is error prone, sometimes irrational, and often ignorant. The fundamentally communal nature of intelligence and knowledge explains why we often assume we know more than we really do, why political opinions and false beliefs are so hard to change, and why individually oriented approaches to education and management frequently fail. But our collaborative minds also enable us to do amazing things. This book contends that true genius can be found in the ways we create intelligence using the world around us. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Mike Chamberlain. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/peng/003079/bk_peng_003079_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Eine kultur- und medienwissenschaftliche Studie, die den unterschiedlichen Praktiken der Illusion in philosophischen und wissenschaftstheoretischen Texten nachgeht - von Kants ´´erlaubter Illusion´´ über Nietzsche, Benjamin und Taubes bis hin zu Haraway und der Erkenntnisträchtigkeit der virtuellen Kunstfigur Lara Croft. ´´Der wirklichen Welt die Treue halten´´ - wie ist das denkbar in einer Welt, in der durch die technische Generierung virtueller Welten die Grenzen von Illusion und Wirklichkeit immer schneller verschoben und unmerklicher überschritten werden - und deren metaphysisch-spekulative Implikationen immer unkenntlicher, darum aber nicht unbedingt unwirksamer werden? - Unter diesem Aspekt ergeben sich überraschende Parallelen zwischen Kants erkenntnistheoretisch begründetem Interesse an der Illusion und dem Konzept der ´´Situated Knowledges´´ der streitbaren zeitgenössischen Wissenschaftstheoretikerin Donna J. Haraway. So verbindet sich nicht nur für beide die Treue zur Realität mit der Anerkennung der realitätskonstituierenden Bedeutung der Illusion, sondern zugleich mit der Frage nach der Kommunizierbarkeit der Welt. In dem Moment freilich, in dem die Realität nicht mehr an die Repräsentation, sondern an die Mitteilbarkeit gebunden ist, erhält die Frage der Darstellung eine in vielen Hinsichten neue Bedeutung. So stellt sich die Frage nach der Herstellung einer verbindlichen Realität unter Bedingungen neuer Medientechniken als Suche nach besseren Darstellungen der Welt dar - wobei ´´bessere Darstellungen´´ präzisere, bewußte Weisen meint, die Welt mitteilbar zu machen. Die Autorin untersucht mögliche Antworten an unterschiedlichen Positionen, wie sie in der Nachfolge der kantischen Einführung der Illusion in die Erkenntnistheorie die formuliert wurden. Diese reichen von Friedrich Nietzsche und Hermann Cohen über Walter Benjamin, Ernst Bloch und Jacob Taubes bis hin zu Sarah Kofman. Am Ende nimmt sich die Autorin die Frage vor, ob eine virtuelle Kunstfigur wie Lara Croft ein erkenntnistaugliches Objekt sein kann.
In this hour, novelist Erin Morgenstern´s darkly magical novel revolves around a mysterious circus and a contest that pits two young students of magic against each other. Next, Alex Stone is a professional magician with a physics degree. In a new book, Fooling Houdini, he breaks ranks with his fellow magicians, revealing some of the tricks of the trade and their basis in cognitive science. He performs a feat of psychic magic with our radio audience.Then, the last remaining magician´s colony in India -- Kathputli, in Delhi -- is slated to be be bulldozed to make way for shopping malls and high rises. Filmmakers Jim Goldblum and Adam Weber are documenting this thousand-year old tradition of conjuring and illusion before it disappears forever. After that, in traditional cultures, magic can be more than performance -- it can be a way of seing the world and a form of medicine. Philosopher and ecologist David Abram shares lessons from his experiences with shamanic healers. He also performs a little sleight-of-hand in our studio.Following that, historian Deborah Harkness studies the history of alchemy and Elizabethan magic. Her best-selling novels, A Discovery of Witches and Shadow of Night involve magical historical manuscripts, time travel, and witches and vampires with very impressive academic credentials. She talks with us about the historical connections between magic and science.And finally, Evolutionary biologist and celebrated (and occasionally reviled) atheist Richard Dawkins attempts to redefine ´´magic´´ as a reality-based, non-supernatural function of the mind. [Broadcast Date: September 28, 2012] 1. Language: English. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/rt/tbon/120928/rt_tbon_120928_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.