A new economy is emerging. An economy that is transforming the fundamental rules of business. An economy based on exploiting knowledge and innovation. An economy where knowledge is the main source of wealth for regions, nations, enter prises and people. This new economy is based on economic values far removed from those of the industrial economy. Value has shifted towards intangibles and in particular towards increasing value by incorporating knowledge into services and products. The advent of this new economy is rapidly changing the role and structure of global business. Winning enterprises are those best able to harness the benefits and opportunities of information and communication technology, capitalize on their knowledge base and move at the speed of the market. Knowledge management lies at the heart of the European Community´s competi tiveness strategy. The European Commission facilitates and supports applied research in knowledge management through its Information Society Technologies (1ST) programme, a major theme of research and technological development within the European Union´s Research and Technology Development Framework Programme. Specifically, the New Methods of Work and Electronic Commerce action of the 1ST programme supports long-term applied research in areas combin ing technological innovation with new work practices and advanced business and work models.
During the last ten years, knowledge about the multitude of adaptive responses of plants to low oxygen stress has grown immensely. The oxygen sensor mechanism has been discovered, the knowledge about the interaction network of gene expression is expanding and metabolic adaptations have been described in detail. Furthermore, morphological changes were investigated and the regulative mechanisms triggered by plant hormones or reactive oxygen species have been revealed. This book provides a broad overview of all these aspects of low oxygen stress in plants. It integrates knowledge from different disciplines such as molecular biology, biochemistry, ecophysiology and agricultural / horticultural sciences to comprehensively describe how plants cope with low oxygen stress and discuss its ecological and agronomical consequences. This book is written for plant scientists, biochemists and scientists in agriculture and ecophysiology.
What assumptions and methods allow us to turn observations into causal knowledge, and how can even incomplete causal knowledge be used in planning and prediction to influence and control our environment? In this book Peter Spirtes, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines address these questions using the formalism of Bayes networks, with results that have been applied in diverse areas of research in the social, behavioral, and physical sciences. The authors show that although experimental and observational study designs may not always permit the same inferences, they are subject to uniform principles. They axiomatize the connection between causal structure and probabilistic independence, explore several varieties of causal indistinguishability, formulate a theory of manipulation, and develop asymptotically reliable procedures for searching over equivalence classes of causal models, including models of categorical data and structural equation models with and without latent variables. The authors show that the relationship between causality and probability can also help to clarify such diverse topics in statistics as the comparative power of experimentation versus observation, Simpson´s paradox, errors in regression models, retrospective versus prospective sampling, and variable selection. The second edition contains a new introduction and an extensive survey of advances and applications that have appeared since the first edition was published in 1993.